XHTML Latin 1 Character Entities

  1.   no-break space = non-breaking space, U+00A0 ISOnum
  2. ¡ ¡ inverted exclamation mark, U+00A1 ISOnum
  3. ¢ ¢ cent sign, U+00A2 ISOnum
  4. £ £ pound sign, U+00A3 ISOnum
  5. ¤ ¤ currency sign, U+00A4 ISOnum
  6. ¥ ¥ yen sign = yuan sign, U+00A5 ISOnum
  7. ¦ ¦ broken bar = broken vertical bar, U+00A6 ISOnum
  8. § § section sign, U+00A7 ISOnum
  9. ¨ ¨ diaeresis = spacing diaeresis, U+00A8 ISOdia
  10. © © copyright sign, U+00A9 ISOnum
  11. ª ª feminine ordinal indicator, U+00AA ISOnum
  12. « « left-pointing double angle quotation mark = left pointing guillemet, U+00AB ISOnum
  13. ¬ ¬ not sign, U+00AC ISOnum
  14. ­ ­ soft hyphen = discretionary hyphen, U+00AD ISOnum
  15. ® ® registered sign = registered trade mark sign, U+00AE ISOnum
  16. ¯ ¯ macron = spacing macron = overline = APL overbar, U+00AF ISOdia
  17. ° ° degree sign, U+00B0 ISOnum
  18. ± ± plus-minus sign = plus-or-minus sign, U+00B1 ISOnum
  19. ² ² superscript two = superscript digit two = squared, U+00B2 ISOnum
  20. ³ ³ superscript three = superscript digit three = cubed, U+00B3 ISOnum
  21. ´ ´ acute accent = spacing acute, U+00B4 ISOdia
  22. µ µ micro sign, U+00B5 ISOnum
  23. ¶ pilcrow sign = paragraph sign, U+00B6 ISOnum
  24. · · middle dot = Georgian comma = Greek middle dot, U+00B7 ISOnum
  25. ¸ ¸ cedilla = spacing cedilla, U+00B8 ISOdia
  26. ¹ ¹ superscript one = superscript digit one, U+00B9 ISOnum
  27. º º masculine ordinal indicator, U+00BA ISOnum
  28. » » right-pointing double angle quotation mark = right pointing guillemet, U+00BB ISOnum
  29. ¼ ¼ vulgar fraction one quarter = fraction one quarter, U+00BC ISOnum
  30. ½ ½ vulgar fraction one half = fraction one half, U+00BD ISOnum
  31. ¾ ¾ vulgar fraction three quarters = fraction three quarters, U+00BE ISOnum
  32. ¿ ¿ inverted question mark = turned question mark, U+00BF ISOnum
  33. À À latin capital A with grave = latin capital A grave, U+00C0 ISOlat1
  34. Á Á latin capital A with acute, U+00C1 ISOlat1
  35. Â Â latin capital A with circumflex, U+00C2 ISOlat1
  36. Ã Ã latin capital A with tilde, U+00C3 ISOlat1
  37. Ä Ä latin capital A with diaeresis, U+00C4 ISOlat1
  38. Å Å latin capital A with ring above = latin capital A ring, U+00C5 ISOlat1
  39. Æ Æ latin capital AE = latin capital ligature AE, U+00C6 ISOlat1
  40. Ç Ç latin capital C with cedilla, U+00C7 ISOlat1
  41. È È latin capital E with grave, U+00C8 ISOlat1
  42. É É latin capital E with acute, U+00C9 ISOlat1
  43. Ê Ê latin capital E with circumflex, U+00CA ISOlat1
  44. Ë Ë latin capital E with diaeresis, U+00CB ISOlat1
  45. Ì Ì latin capital I with grave, U+00CC ISOlat1
  46. Í Í latin capital I with acute, U+00CD ISOlat1
  47. Î Î latin capital I with circumflex, U+00CE ISOlat1
  48. Ï Ï latin capital I with diaeresis, U+00CF ISOlat1
  49. Ð Ð latin capital ETH, U+00D0 ISOlat1
  50. Ñ Ñ latin capital N with tilde, U+00D1 ISOlat1
  51. Ò Ò latin capital O with grave, U+00D2 ISOlat1
  52. Ó Ó latin capital O with acute, U+00D3 ISOlat1
  53. Ô Ô latin capital O with circumflex, U+00D4 ISOlat1
  54. Õ Õ latin capital O with tilde, U+00D5 ISOlat1
  55. Ö Ö latin capital O with diaeresis, U+00D6 ISOlat1
  56. × × multiplication sign, U+00D7 ISOnum
  57. Ø Ø latin capital O with stroke = latin capital O slash, U+00D8 ISOlat1
  58. Ù Ù latin capital U with grave, U+00D9 ISOlat1
  59. Ú Ú latin capital U with acute, U+00DA ISOlat1
  60. Û Û latin capital U with circumflex, U+00DB ISOlat1
  61. Ü Ü latin capital U with diaeresis, U+00DC ISOlat1
  62. Ý Ý latin capital Y with acute, U+00DD ISOlat1
  63. Þ Þ latin capital THORN, U+00DE ISOlat1
  64. ß ß latin small sharp s = ess-zed, U+00DF ISOlat1
  65. à à latin small a with grave = latin small a grave, U+00E0 ISOlat1
  66. á á latin small a with acute, U+00E1 ISOlat1
  67. â â latin small a with circumflex, U+00E2 ISOlat1
  68. ã ã latin small a with tilde, U+00E3 ISOlat1
  69. ä ä latin small a with diaeresis, U+00E4 ISOlat1
  70. å å latin small a with ring above = latin small a ring, U+00E5 ISOlat1
  71. æ æ latin small ae = latin small ligature ae, U+00E6 ISOlat1
  72. ç ç latin small c with cedilla, U+00E7 ISOlat1
  73. è è latin small e with grave, U+00E8 ISOlat1
  74. é é latin small e with acute, U+00E9 ISOlat1
  75. ê ê latin small e with circumflex, U+00EA ISOlat1
  76. ë ë latin small e with diaeresis, U+00EB ISOlat1
  77. ì ì latin small i with grave, U+00EC ISOlat1
  78. í í latin small i with acute, U+00ED ISOlat1
  79. î î latin small i with circumflex, U+00EE ISOlat1
  80. ï ï latin small i with diaeresis, U+00EF ISOlat1
  81. ð ð latin small eth, U+00F0 ISOlat1
  82. ñ ñ latin small n with tilde, U+00F1 ISOlat1
  83. ò ò latin small o with grave, U+00F2 ISOlat1
  84. ó ó latin small o with acute, U+00F3 ISOlat1
  85. ô ô latin small o with circumflex, U+00F4 ISOlat1
  86. õ õ latin small o with tilde, U+00F5 ISOlat1
  87. ö ö latin small o with diaeresis, U+00F6 ISOlat1
  88. ÷ ÷ division sign, U+00F7 ISOnum
  89. ø ø latin small o with stroke, = latin small o slash, U+00F8 ISOlat1
  90. ù ù latin small u with grave, U+00F9 ISOlat1
  91. ú ú latin small u with acute, U+00FA ISOlat1
  92. û û latin small u with circumflex, U+00FB ISOlat1
  93. ü ü latin small u with diaeresis, U+00FC ISOlat1
  94. ý ý latin small y with acute, U+00FD ISOlat1
  95. þ þ latin small thorn with, U+00FE ISOlat1
  96. ÿ ÿ latin small y with diaeresis, U+00FF ISOlat1

XHTML Special Characters

  1. < &lt; less-than sign, U+003C ISOnum
  2. > &gt; greater-than sign, U+003E ISOnum
  3. & &amp; ampersand, U+0026 ISOnum
  4. &apos; The Apostrophe (Apostrophe Quote, APL Quote), U+0027 ISOnum
  5. &quot; quotation mark (Quote Double), U+0022 ISOnum

Latin Extended-A

ligature is a misnomer, this is a separate character in some languages

  1. Π&OElig; latin capital ligature OE, U+0152 ISOlat2
  2. œ &oelig; latin small ligature oe, U+0153 ISOlat2
  3. Š &Scaron; latin capital letter S with caron, U+0160 ISOlat2
  4. š &scaron; latin small letter s with caron, U+0161 ISOlat2
  5. Ÿ &Yuml; latin capital letter Y with diaeresis, U+0178 ISOlat2

Spacing Modifier Letters

  1. ˆ &circ; modifier letter circumflex accent, U+02C6 ISOpub
  2. ˜ &tilde; small tilde, U+02DC ISOdia

General Punctuation

lsaquo is proposed but not yet ISO standardized

rsaquo is proposed but not yet ISO standardized

  1. &ensp; en space, U+2002 ISOpub
  2. &emsp; em space, U+2003 ISOpub
  3. &thinsp; thin space, U+2009 ISOpub
  4. &zwnj; zero width non-joiner, U+200C NEW RFC 2070
  5. &zwj; zero width joiner, U+200D NEW RFC 2070
  6. &lrm; left-to-right mark, U+200E NEW RFC 2070
  7. &rlm; right-to-left mark, U+200F NEW RFC 2070
  8. &ndash; en dash, U+2013 ISOpub
  9. &mdash; em dash, U+2014 ISOpub
  10. &lsquo; left single quotation mark, U+2018 ISOnum
  11. &rsquo; right single quotation mark, U+2019 ISOnum
  12. &sbquo; single low-9 quotation mark, U+201A NEW
  13. &ldquo; left double quotation mark, U+201C ISOnum
  14. &rdquo; right double quotation mark, U+201D ISOnum
  15. &bdquo; double low-9 quotation mark, U+201E NEW
  16. &dagger; dagger, U+2020 ISOpub
  17. &Dagger; double dagger, U+2021 ISOpub
  18. &permil; per mille sign, U+2030 ISOtech
  19. &lsaquo; single left-pointing angle quotation mark, U+2039 ISO proposed
  20. &rsaquo; single right-pointing angle quotation mark, U+203A ISO proposed
  21. &euro; euro sign, U+20AC NEW

Latin Extended-B

  1. ƒ &fnof; latin small f with hook = function = florin, U+0192 ISOtech


There is no Sigmaf, and no U+03A2 character either

  1. Α &Alpha; greek capital letter alpha, U+0391
  2. Β &Beta; greek capital letter beta, U+0392
  3. Γ &Gamma; greek capital letter gamma, U+0393 ISOgrk3
  4. Δ &Delta; greek capital letter delta, U+0394 ISOgrk3
  5. Ε &Epsilon; greek capital letter epsilon, U+0395
  6. Ζ &Zeta; greek capital letter zeta, U+0396
  7. Η &Eta; greek capital letter eta, U+0397
  8. Θ &Theta; greek capital letter theta, U+0398 ISOgrk3
  9. Ι &Iota; greek capital letter iota, U+0399
  10. Κ &Kappa; greek capital letter kappa, U+039A
  11. Λ &Lambda; greek capital letter lambda, U+039B ISOgrk3
  12. Μ &Mu; greek capital letter mu, U+039C
  13. Ν &Nu; greek capital letter nu, U+039D
  14. Ξ &Xi; greek capital letter xi, U+039E ISOgrk3
  15. Ο &Omicron; greek capital letter omicron, U+039F
  16. Π &Pi; greek capital letter pi, U+03A0 ISOgrk3
  17. Ρ &Rho; greek capital letter rho, U+03A1
  18. Σ &Sigma; greek capital letter sigma, U+03A3 ISOgrk3
  19. Τ &Tau; greek capital letter tau, U+03A4
  20. Υ &Upsilon; greek capital letter upsilon, U+03A5 ISOgrk3
  21. Φ &Phi; greek capital letter phi, U+03A6 ISOgrk3
  22. Χ &Chi; greek capital letter chi, U+03A7
  23. Ψ &Psi; greek capital letter psi, U+03A8 ISOgrk3
  24. Ω &Omega; greek capital letter omega, U+03A9 ISOgrk3
  25. α &alpha; greek small letter alpha, U+03B1 ISOgrk3
  26. β &beta; greek small letter beta, U+03B2 ISOgrk3
  27. γ &gamma; greek small letter gamma, U+03B3 ISOgrk3
  28. δ &delta; greek small letter delta, U+03B4 ISOgrk3
  29. ε &epsilon; greek small letter epsilon, U+03B5 ISOgrk3
  30. ζ &zeta; greek small letter zeta, U+03B6 ISOgrk3
  31. η &eta; greek small letter eta, U+03B7 ISOgrk3
  32. θ &theta; greek small letter theta, U+03B8 ISOgrk3
  33. ι &iota; greek small letter iota, U+03B9 ISOgrk3
  34. κ &kappa; greek small letter kappa, U+03BA ISOgrk3
  35. λ &lambda; greek small letter lambda, U+03BB ISOgrk3
  36. μ &mu; greek small letter mu, U+03BC ISOgrk3
  37. ν &nu; greek small letter nu, U+03BD ISOgrk3
  38. ξ &xi; greek small letter xi, U+03BE ISOgrk3
  39. ο &omicron; greek small letter omicron, U+03BF NEW
  40. π &pi; greek small letter pi, U+03C0 ISOgrk3
  41. ρ &rho; greek small letter rho, U+03C1 ISOgrk3
  42. ς &sigmaf; greek small letter final sigma, U+03C2 ISOgrk3
  43. σ &sigma; greek small letter sigma, U+03C3 ISOgrk3
  44. τ &tau; greek small letter tau, U+03C4 ISOgrk3
  45. υ &upsilon; greek small letter upsilon, U+03C5 ISOgrk3
  46. φ &phi; greek small letter phi, U+03C6 ISOgrk3
  47. χ &chi; greek small letter chi, U+03C7 ISOgrk3
  48. ψ &psi; greek small letter psi, U+03C8 ISOgrk3
  49. ω &omega; greek small letter omega, U+03C9 ISOgrk3
  50. ϑ &thetasym; greek small letter theta symbol, U+03D1 NEW
  51. ϒ &upsih; greek upsilon with hook symbol, U+03D2 NEW
  52. ϖ &piv; greek pi symbol, U+03D6 ISOgrk3

General Punctuation

bullet is NOT the same as bullet operator, U+2219

  1. &bull; bullet = black small circle, U+2022 ISOpub
  2. &hellip; horizontal ellipsis = three dot leader, U+2026 ISOpub
  3. &prime; prime = minutes = feet, U+2032 ISOtech
  4. &Prime; double prime = seconds = inches, U+2033 ISOtech
  5. &oline; overline = spacing overscore, U+203E NEW
  6. &frasl; fraction slash, U+2044 NEW

Letterlike Symbols

alef symbol is NOT the same as hebrew letter alef, U+05D0 although the same glyph could be used to depict both characters

  1. &weierp; script capital P = power set = Weierstrass p, U+2118 ISOamso
  2. &image; blackletter capital I = imaginary part, U+2111 ISOamso
  3. &real; blackletter capital R = real part symbol, U+211C ISOamso
  4. &trade; trade mark sign, U+2122 ISOnum
  5. &alefsym; alef symbol = first transfinite cardinal, U+2135 NEW


Unicode does not say that lArr is the same as the ‘is implied by’ arrow but also does not have any other character for that function. So ⇐ lArr can be used for ‘is implied by’ as ISOtech suggests

Unicode does not say this is the ‘implies’ character but does not have another character with this function so ⇒ rArr can be used for ‘implies’ as ISOtech suggests

  1. &larr; leftwards arrow, U+2190 ISOnum
  2. &uarr; upwards arrow, U+2191 ISOnum
  3. &rarr; rightwards arrow, U+2192 ISOnum
  4. &darr; downwards arrow, U+2193 ISOnum
  5. &harr; left right arrow, U+2194 ISOamsa
  6. &crarr; downwards arrow with corner leftwards = carriage return, U+21B5 NEW
  7. &lArr; leftwards double arrow, U+21D0 ISOtech
  8. &uArr; upwards double arrow, U+21D1 ISOamsa
  9. &rArr; rightwards double arrow, U+21D2 ISOtech
  10. &dArr; downwards double arrow, U+21D3 ISOamsa
  11. &hArr; left right double arrow, U+21D4 ISOamsa

Mathematical Operators

Should there be a more memorable name than ‘ni’?

prod is NOT the same character as U+03A0 ‘greek capital letter pi’ though the same glyph might be used for both

sum is NOT the same character as U+03A3 ‘greek capital letter sigma’ though the same glyph might be used for both

tilde operator is NOT the same character as the tilde, U+007E, although the same glyph might be used to represent both

Note that nsup, ‘not a superset of, U+2283’ is not covered by the Symbol font encoding and is not included. Should it be, for symmetry? It is in ISOamsn

dot operator is NOT the same character as U+00B7 middle dot

  1. &forall; for all, U+2200 ISOtech
  2. &part; partial differential, U+2202 ISOtech
  3. &exist; there exists, U+2203 ISOtech
  4. &empty; empty set = null set, U+2205 ISOamso
  5. &nabla; nabla = backward difference, U+2207 ISOtech
  6. &isin; element of, U+2208 ISOtech
  7. &notin; not an element of, U+2209 ISOtech
  8. &ni; contains as member, U+220B ISOtech
  9. &prod; n-ary product = product sign, U+220F ISOamsb
  10. &sum; n-ary sumation, U+2211 ISOamsb
  11. &minus; minus sign, U+2212 ISOtech
  12. &lowast; asterisk operator, U+2217 ISOtech
  13. &radic; square root = radical sign, U+221A ISOtech
  14. &prop; proportional to, U+221D ISOtech
  15. &infin; infinity, U+221E ISOtech
  16. &ang; angle, U+2220 ISOamso
  17. &and; logical and = wedge, U+2227 ISOtech
  18. &or; logical or = vee, U+2228 ISOtech
  19. &cap; intersection = cap, U+2229 ISOtech
  20. &cup; union = cup, U+222A ISOtech
  21. &int; integral, U+222B ISOtech
  22. &there4; therefore, U+2234 ISOtech
  23. &sim; tilde operator = varies with = similar to, U+223C ISOtech
  24. &cong; approximately equal to, U+2245 ISOtech
  25. &asymp; almost equal to = asymptotic to, U+2248 ISOamsr
  26. &ne; not equal to, U+2260 ISOtech
  27. &equiv; identical to, U+2261 ISOtech
  28. &le; less-than or equal to, U+2264 ISOtech
  29. &ge; greater-than or equal to, U+2265 ISOtech
  30. &sub; subset of, U+2282 ISOtech
  31. &sup; superset of, U+2283 ISOtech
  32. &nsub; not a subset of, U+2284 ISOamsn
  33. &sube; subset of or equal to, U+2286 ISOtech
  34. &supe; superset of or equal to, U+2287 ISOtech
  35. &oplus; circled plus = direct sum, U+2295 ISOamsb
  36. &otimes; circled times = vector product, U+2297 ISOamsb
  37. &perp; up tack = orthogonal to = perpendicular, U+22A5 ISOtech
  38. &sdot; dot operator, U+22C5 ISOamsb

Miscellaneous Technical

lang is NOT the same character as U+003C ‘less than’ or U+2039 ‘single left-pointing angle quotation mark’

rang is NOT the same character as U+003E ‘greater than’ or U+203A ‘single right-pointing angle quotation mark’

  1. &lceil; left ceiling = apl upstile, U+2308 ISOamsc
  2. &rceil; right ceiling, U+2309 ISOamsc
  3. &lfloor; left floor = apl downstile, U+230A ISOamsc
  4. &rfloor; right floor, U+230B ISOamsc
  5. &lang; left-pointing angle bracket = bra, U+2329 ISOtech
  6. &rang; right-pointing angle bracket = ket, U+232A ISOtech

Geometric Shapes

  1. &loz; lozenge, U+25CA ISOpub

Miscellaneous Symbols

black here seems to mean filled as opposed to hollow

  1. &spades; black spade suit, U+2660 ISOpub
  2. &clubs; black club suit = shamrock, U+2663 ISOpub
  3. &hearts; black heart suit = valentine, U+2665 ISOpub
  4. &diams; black diamond suit, U+2666 ISOpub

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